Independence day of the Republic of Peru
Peru, country in western South America. Except for the Lake Titicaca basin in the southeast, its borders lie in sparsely populated zones. The boundaries with Colombia to the northeast and Brazil to the east traverse lower ranges or tropical forests, whereas the borders with Bolivia to the southeast, Chile to the south, and Ecuador to the northwest run across the high Andes. To the west, territorial waters, reaching 200 miles (320 km) into the Pacific Ocean, are claimed by Peru. Peru is essentially a tropical country, with its northern tip nearly touching the Equator. Despite its tropical location, a great diversity of climates, ways of life, and economic activities is brought about by the extremes of elevation and by the southwest winds that sweep in across the cold Peru Current (or Humboldt Current), which flows along its Pacific shoreline. The immense difficulties of travel posed by the Andes have long impeded national unity. Iquitos, on the upper Amazon, lies only about 600 miles (965 km) northeast of Lima, the capital, but, before the airplane, travelers between the cities often chose a 7,000-mile (11,250-km) trip via the Amazon, the Atlantic and Caribbean, the Isthmus of Panama, and the Pacific, rather than the shorter mountain route.The name Peru is derived from a Quechua Indian word implying land of abundance, a reference to the economic wealth produced by the rich and highly organized Inca civilization that ruled the region for centuries. The country’s vast mineral, agricultural, and marine resources long have served as the economic foundation of the country, and, by the late 20th century, tourism had also become a major element of Peru’s economic development. Favourite destinations for international travelers include Machu Picchu, a site of ancient Inca ruins located about 50 miles (80 km) northwest of Cuzco, and museums housing artifacts excavated from ancient tombs in northern coastal Peru. Land - Relief Peru is traditionally described in terms of three broad longitudinal regions: the arid Costa on the west; the rugged Sierra, or Andes, system in the centre; and the wet and forested Amazonia—the tropical Amazon Basin—on the east. The Costa The coastal plain can be readily divided into three parts—north, central, and south—on the basis of the amount of level land and the distance between the Andean ranges and the sea. Generally speaking, the amount of level coastal land diminishes from north to south. In the northern region, from Ecuador to Chimbote, the plain is typically some 20 to 30 miles (30 to 50 km) wide, with a maximum width of more than 90 miles (140 km) in the Sechura Desert south of Piura. The central coastal region, which stretches from Chimbote to Nazca, is narrower than the northern region and is characterized by areas of rough hills that extend from the Andes to the shores of the ocean. From Nazca southward to the Chilean border the coast is for the most part lined by low mountains; the southern valleys are narrow, and only in scattered spots are level lands found near the ocean. The Sierra, or Andean, region Along the western edge of South America, the Andes Mountains were created by tectonic activity in which the South American Plate overrode the Nazca Plate. The Peruvian Andes are typical of mountain regions of the Pacific Rim: they are young in geologic terms, and their continuing uplift is manifested by frequent earthquakes and much instability. Three main backbones protrude from the Peruvian Andes; they are commonly called the cordilleras Occidental, Central, and Oriental, although these designations are not used within Peru. Slopes are relatively gentle in northern Peru, and maximum elevations seldom exceed 16,000 feet (about 5,000 metres). The Andes in central Peru are higher and more rugged. The ranges of the central zone form particularly difficult barriers to movement. The main pass east of Lima, for instance, is at an elevation of more than 15,000 feet (4,500 metres)—higher than many of the peaks in the north. Many of the mountains of central Peru are snowcapped and are a popular attraction for climbers and tourists. Of particular fame is the Cordillera Blanca, with the country’s highest peak, Mount Huascarán, at 22,205 feet (6,768 metres), and nearby Huascarán National Park (designated a UNESCO World Heritage site in 1985). In southern Peru the character of the Andes changes to that of a high plateau region; this is the Puna, with vast tablelands and elevations between 13,000 and 16,000 feet (about 4,000 and 5,000 metres). Scattered peaks, with elevations of up to about 21,000 feet (6,400 metres), protrude above the broad southern plateaus. Beginning northwest of Arequipa, many of the southern peaks form a volcanic chain that stretches into northern Chile, including Ampato, Huacla Huacla, and Misti. Amazonia of Peru The lower slopes of the western Andes merge with the heavily forested tropical lowlands of the Amazon Basin to form the region known as Amazonia, which occupies more than three-fifths of the area of Peru. An area of dense cloud forests is found in the zone immediately adjacent to the Andes. This area is referred to as the Montaña; the jungle areas in the eastern part of Amazonia are referred to as the Selva. The physiography of the region is characterized by rolling hills and level plains that extend eastward to the borders with Colombia, Brazil, and Bolivia. Elevations are uniformly low, ranging from about 3,300 feet (1,000 metres) at the eastern edge of the Andes to about 260 feet (80 metres) above sea level along the Amazon River at the Peru–Brazil border. Drainage Distinctive drainage patterns dissect the Costa, the Sierra, and Amazonia. Of the more than 50 rivers that flow west from the Andes across the Costa, most are short (usually less than 200 miles [325 km] long) and precipitous, with highly seasonal rates of flow. Most have a period of peak flow (usually during the December to March rainy season) followed by a long dry period; only the largest of the Costa rivers, such as the Santa, have dependable year-round flows. The Sierra not only contains the headwaters of the streams that flow to both the Pacific and the Amazon but also has a large area of internal drainage. In the south several rivers cross the altiplano in Peru to empty into Lake Titicaca, which is shared with Bolivia and is—at an elevation of 12,500 feet (3,810 metres)—the world’s highest navigable body of water. Amazonia is characterized by great rivers. The Amazon, with the largest volume of flow of any river in the world, has headwaters that rise in several places in the Peruvian Andes; one of the main branches, the Ucayali, originates in southern Peru some 1,700 miles (2,700 km) from its juncture with the main river. The Amazon is navigable, but such large tributaries as the Marañón, Huallaga, and Ucayali can be navigated only for relatively short distances west of the port of Iquitos. These rivers flow northward in long deep valleys before turning east to join the Amazon, forming mostly hindrances to transportation rather than important trade routes. More … Score: https://www.britannica.com/place/PeruCzytaj więcej
Independence day of the Republic of Maldives
Maldives, in full Republic of Maldives, also called Maldive Islands, independent island country in the north-central Indian Ocean. It consists of a chain of about 1,200 small coral islands and sandbanks (some 200 of which are inhabited), grouped in clusters, or atolls. The islands extend more than 510 miles (820 km) from north to south and 80 miles (130 km) from east to west. The northernmost atoll is about 370 miles (600 km) south-southwest of the Indian mainland, and the central area, including the capital island of Male (Male’), is about 400 miles (645 km) southwest of Sri Lanka. Land The Maldive Islands are a series of coral atolls built up from the crowns of a submerged ancient volcanic mountain range. All the islands are low-lying, none rising to more than 6 feet (1.8 metres) above sea level. Barrier reefs protect the islands from the destructive effects of monsoons. The rainy season, from May to August, is brought by the southwest monsoon; from December to March the northeast monsoon brings dry and mild winds. The average annual temperature varies from 76 to 86 °F (24 to 30 °C). Rainfall averages about 84 inches (2,130 mm) per year. The atolls have sandy beaches, lagoons, and a luxuriant growth of coconut palms, together with breadfruit trees and tropical bushes. Fish abound in the reefs, lagoons, and seas adjoining the islands; sea turtles are caught for food and for their oil, a traditional medicine. People The population of Maldives belongs almost entirely to the Maldivian ethnic group, which is the result of various peoples settling in the islands successively through the country’s history. The first settlers, it is generally believed, were Tamil and Sinhalese peoples from southern India and Sri Lanka. Traders from Arab countries, Malaya, Madagascar, Indonesia, and China visited the islands through the centuries. The official language is an Indo-European language called Dhivehi (or Maldivian); Arabic, Hindi, and English are also spoken. Islam is the state religion. More than half of the population is considered rural. With the exception of those living in Male, the only relatively large settlement in the country, the inhabitants of the Maldives live in villages on small islands in scattered atolls. Only about 20 of the islands have more than 1,000 inhabitants, and the southern islands are more densely populated than the northern ones. The birth rate for the Maldives is somewhat higher than the world average, but the death rate is lower. More than one-fifth of the total population is under 15 years of age. Life expectancy is about 74 years for men and 79 for women. Economy Since the 1970s the economy of the Maldives has developed rapidly. Annual growth of gross domestic product (GDP) has been high, averaging about 6 percent in the 2010s, and the gross national income (GNI) per capita—among the lowest in the world in the 1970s—reached the level of upper middle-income countries by the late 2010s. The economy is based on tourism, fishing, boatbuilding, and boat repairing, with the tourism sector driving the rapid growth. Agriculture, forestry, and fishing Fishing, long the traditional base of the economy, has been far surpassed by tourism as the main source of gross domestic product (GDP). While the sector still produces the bulk of the country’s exports and continues to grow (albeit at a slower pace than the tourism industry), it employs less than one-fifth of the labour force and contributes less than one-tenth of the GDP. Tuna is the predominant fish caught, traditionally by the pole-and-line method, although a good deal of the fishing fleet has been mechanized. Most of the fish catch is sold to foreign companies for processing and export. Although formal businesses have seen rapid growth in the country, especially on the main islands, much of the population subsists outside the money economy on fishing, coconut collecting, and the growing of vegetables and melons, roots and tubers (cassava, sweet potatoes, and yams), and tropical fruits. Cropland, scattered over many small islands, is minimal, and nearly all the staple foods must be imported. Manufacturing Industries are largely of the handicraft or cottage type, including the making of coir (coconut-husk fibre) and coir products, fish canning, and boatbuilding. Textile and garment manufacturing was among the more lucrative industries from the mid-1990s until the 2005 expiry of an import quota regime in international textile trade left factories in the Maldives unable to compete. Construction makes up the bulk of the industrial sector. Trade Maldives entered the South Asian Free Trade Area (SAFTA) in 2006 and signed a free trade agreement with China in 2017. Imports include consumer goods such as food (principally rice), textiles, medicines, and petroleum products. Fish—mostly dried, frozen, or canned skipjack tuna—accounts for the bulk of exports. China, India, the United Arab Emirates, Thailand, Sri Lanka, and Singapore are among the main trading partners. Services The tourism industry, although nonexistent before 1972, underpins the services sector. Annually, more than 1.5 million tourists visit the Maldives. Its more than 130 resort islands include high-end hotel brands, and its marine geography offers unique diving and water sports opportunities as well as undersea accommodations, restaurants, and spas. By the mid-2010s the service sector accounted for four-fifths of the country’s GDP. Labour and taxation The rapid growth of the tourism industry left its mark on the labour market, which saw a dramatic shift away from agriculture and toward services. In part because of lack of training among the general population, a number of foreign workers from South Asia provide skills needed to help develop businesses. As businesses on resort islands away from the general populace demanded an increasing share of the total labour force, the participation rate of women, who are discouraged by the culture from living away from their families, fell substantially. About three-fifths of women participated in the labour force in the 1970s, but the rate dipped as low as one-fifth of women in the mid-1990s. By the 2010s, however, the participation rate had recovered to about half of women. Beginning in 2011, the Maldives collected taxes primarily on the profits of businesses and financial institutions and on goods and services within the tourism sector. An income tax was implemented in 2020. Transportation Transportation between islands and atolls is vital for the country. China and India, competing for influence over the strategically located Maldive Islands, have provided significant foreign direct investment to develop infrastructure that would further connect the islands. Boats provide the principal means of transport between the atolls, and scheduled shipping services link the country with Sri Lanka, Singapore, and India. The national airline carries passengers between several airports in the country as well as internationally. The airport at Male handles most international traffic, although there are other airports that serve limited international travel. More … Score: https://www.britannica.com/place/Maldives Czytaj więcej
The exhibition Świat Rembrandta (Rembrandt’s World) has opened in the Royal Castle in Warsaw.
Rembrandt has many links to Poland. To begin with, he produced numerous etchings and paintings of Poles or people in supposedly Polish guises. There is much debate about several of these works, however. Much has been written, for instance, about his so-called Polish Rider from 1655, which shows a horseman in what many scholars have defined as a Polish costume. The rider has been identified variously as a specific Polish nobleman, a generic Cossack, a personification of a Christian knight, a champion of religious freedom, or a literary character.Czytaj więcej
Kuchnia meksykańska jest znana na całym świecie z pysznych dań i wielkiej różnorodności
Wiele dań i technik kulinarnych są częścią wielopokoleniowych tradycji. W Meksyku popularne są świeże, odżywcze i kuszące owoce morza. Idealne podczas gorących dni, na brzegu plaży, w restauracji czy na ulicznych stoiskach; Owoce morza to coś czego w Meksyku nie może zabraknąć.Czytaj więcej
Embajador cubano sostiene encuentro con canoístas cubanos que entrenan en Polonia
La víspera, Jorge Martí Martínez, embajador de Cuba en Polonia visitó la base de entrenamiento en la ciudad de Bydgoszcz, donde continúan su preparación en Polonia los cinco canoístas cubanos clasificados para los Juegos Olímpicos de Tokio 2021.Czytaj więcej
Anniversary of the Revolution Arab Republic of Egypt
Egypt, country located in the northeastern corner of Africa. Egypt’s heartland, the Nile River valley and delta, was the home of one of the principal civilizations of the ancient Middle East and, like Mesopotamia farther east, was the site of one of the world’s earliest urban and literate societies. Pharaonic Egypt thrived for some 3,000 years through a series of native dynasties that were interspersed with brief periods of foreign rule. After Alexander the Great conquered the region in 323 bce, urban Egypt became an integral part of the Hellenistic world. Under the Greek Ptolemaic dynasty, an advanced literate society thrived in the city of Alexandria, but what is now Egypt was conquered by the Romans in 30 bce. It remained part of the Roman Republic and Empire and then part of Rome’s successor state, the Byzantine Empire, until its conquest by Arab Muslim armies in 639–642 ce. Until the Muslim conquest, great continuity had typified Egyptian rural life. Despite the incongruent ethnicity of successive ruling groups and the cosmopolitan nature of Egypt’s larger urban centres, the language and culture of the rural, agrarian masses—whose lives were largely measured by the annual rise and fall of the Nile River, with its annual inundation—had changed only marginally throughout the centuries. Following the conquests, both urban and rural culture began to adopt elements of Arab culture, and an Arabic vernacular eventually replaced the Egyptian language as the common means of spoken discourse. Moreover, since that time, Egypt’s history has been part of the broader Islamic world, and though Egyptians continued to be ruled by foreign elite—whether Arab, Kurdish, Circassian, or Turkish—the country’s cultural milieu remained predominantly Arab. Egypt eventually became one of the intellectual and cultural centres of the Arab and Islamic world, a status that was fortified in the mid-13th century when Mongol armies sacked Baghdad and ended the Abbasid caliphate. The Mamluk sultans of Egypt, under whom the country thrived for several centuries, established a pseudo-caliphate of dubious legitimacy. But in 1517 the Ottoman Empire defeated the Mamluks and established control over Egypt that lasted until 1798, when Napoleon I led a French army in a short occupation of the country. The French occupation, which ended in 1801, marked the first time a European power had conquered and occupied Egypt, and it set the stage for further European involvement. Egypt’s strategic location has always made it a hub for trade routes between Africa, Europe, and Asia, but this natural advantage was enhanced in 1869 by the opening of the Suez Canal, connecting the Mediterranean Sea to the Red Sea. The concern of the European powers (namely France and the United Kingdom, which were major shareholders in the canal) to safeguard the canal for strategic and commercial reasons became one of the most important factors influencing the subsequent history of Egypt. The United Kingdom occupied Egypt in 1882 and continued to exert a strong influence on the country until after World War II (1939–45). In 1952 a military coup installed a revolutionary regime that promoted a combination of socialism and Pan-Arab nationalism. The new regime’s extreme political rhetoric and its nationalization of the Suez Canal Company prompted the Suez Crisis of 1956, which was only resolved by the intervention of the United States and the Soviet Union, whose presence in the Mediterranean region thereafter kept Egypt in the international spotlight. During the Cold War, Egypt’s central role in the Arabic-speaking world increased its geopolitical importance as Arab nationalism and inter-Arab relations became powerful and emotional political forces in the Middle East and North Africa. Egypt led the Arab states in a series of wars against Israel but was the first of those states to make peace with the Jewish state, which it did in 1979. Egypt’s authoritarian political system was long dominated by the president, the ruling party, and the security services. With opposition political activity tightly restricted, decades of popular frustration erupted into mass demonstrations in 2011. The uprising forced Pres. Hosni Mubarak to step down, leaving a council of military officers in control of the country. Power was transferred to an elected government in 2012, and a new constitution was adopted at the end of the year. This elected government, however, was toppled a year later when the military intervened to remove the newly elected president, Mohamed Morsi, a member of the Islamist Muslim Brotherhood, following a series of massive public demonstrations against his administration. (For a discussion of unrest and political change in Egypt in 2011, see Egypt Uprising of 2011.) The ancient Greek historian Herodotus called Egypt the “gift of the Nile.” Indeed, the country’s rich agricultural productivity—it is one of the region’s major food producers—has long supported a large rural population devoted to working the land. Present-day Egypt, however, is largely urban. The capital city, Cairo, is one of the world’s largest urban agglomerations, and manufacturing and trade have increasingly outstripped agriculture as the largest sectors of the national economy. Tourism has traditionally provided an enormous portion of foreign exchange, but that industry has been subject to fluctuations during times of political and civil unrest in the region. Land of Egypt Egypt’s land frontiers border Libya to the west, Sudan to the south, and Israel to the northeast. Egypt’s border with Sudan is notable for two areas, the Ḥalāʾib Triangle along the Red Sea and Biʾr Ṭawīl further inland, that are subject to differing claims by the two countries (see Researcher’s Note). In the north its Mediterranean coastline is about 620 miles (1,000 km), and in the east its coastline on the Red Sea and the Gulf of Aqaba is about 1,200 miles (1,900 km). Relief The topography of Egypt is dominated by the Nile. For about 750 miles (1,200 km) of its northward course through the country, the river cuts its way through bare desert, its narrow valley a sharply delineated strip of green, abundantly fecund in contrast to the desolation that surrounds it. From Lake Nasser, the river’s entrance into southern Egypt, to Cairo in the north, the Nile is hemmed into its trenchlike valley by bordering cliffs, but at Cairo these disappear, and the river begins to fan out into its delta. The Nile and the delta form the first of four physiographic regions, the others being the Western Desert (Arabic Al-Ṣaḥrāʾ al-Gharbiyyah), the Eastern Desert (Al-Ṣaḥrāʾ al-Sharqiyyah), and the Sinai Peninsula. The Nile divides the desert plateau through which it flows into two unequal sections—the Western Desert, between the river and the Libyan frontier, and the Eastern Desert, extending to the Suez Canal, the Gulf of Suez, and the Red Sea. Each of the two has a distinctive character, as does the third and smallest of the Egyptian deserts, the Sinai. The Western Desert (a branch of the Libyan Desert) is arid and without wadis (dry beds of seasonal rivers), while the Eastern Desert is extensively dissected by wadis and fringed by rugged mountains in the east. The desert of central Sinai is open country, broken by isolated hills and scored by wadis. Egypt is not, as is often believed, an entirely flat country. In addition to the mountains along the Red Sea, mountainous areas occur in the extreme southwest of the Western Desert and in the southern Sinai Peninsula. The high ground in the southwest is associated with the ʿUwaynāt mountain mass, which lies just outside Egyptian territory. The coastal regions of Egypt, with the exception of the delta, are everywhere hemmed in either by desert or by mountain; they are arid or of very limited fertility. The coastal plain in both the north and east tends to be narrow; it seldom exceeds a width of 30 miles (48 km). With the exception of the cities of Alexandria, Port Said, and Suez and a few small ports and resorts such as Marsā Maṭrūh and Al-ʿAlamayn (El-Alamein), the coastal regions are sparsely populated and underdeveloped. More … Score: https://www.britannica.com/place/EgyptCzytaj więcej
Promocja regionów obejmie swoim zasięgiem zarówno region, Polskę, jak i świat. Zaplanowane działania promocyjne pozwolą dotrzeć do mieszkańców regionu - potencjalnych konsumentów oraz inwestorów w kraju i za granicą.
Panama 2019 | 4K | must see places | travel guide
A clip of our Panama trip in april 2019. The journey was planned as followed: We arrived in Panama City and took the Night Bus to Almirante to get to 0:41 Bocas del Torro
Bethlehem, Palestine: Church of the Nativity
More info about Rick's travels to Palestine: http://www.ricksteves.com/watch-read-... No longer just the little town of Christmas-carol fame, Bethlehem is a leading Palestinian city. Its skyline is a commotion of both crescents and crosses — a reminder that the town, while now mostly Muslim, still has many Christians.